The aim of this study is to compare the happiness levels and to evaluate the related factors of community-dwelling elders and in nursing home residents in the province with the highest rate of elderly population in Turkey. The cross-sectional type of research was conducted in the spring of 2018 with a total of 434 elderly aged 65 and over individuals, including 400 community-dwelling elders and 34 nursing home residents in the city center. Research data were collected through the "Socio-demographic Information Form" and the "Oxford Happiness Questionnaire". Descriptive statistics (number, percentage, min-max values, mean, standard deviation), chi-square test, t test, one-way analysis of variance were used in the evaluation of the data. A p-value <0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. The average happiness scale score of the nursing home residents (84.11±10.93) were found to be lower than the community-dwelling elders (109.40±14.56), and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). It was observed that the scale score decreased statistically significantly as the age progressed, and that the scale scores of women were higher than men, and those who were married compared to singles (p<0.05). It was determined that having a health problem, negative perception of health, educational status, economic status, and having a child also affected the level of happiness (p<0.05). Living in a nursing home affects happiness. The social support of the family and relatives of the elderly living in the nursing home is important for their happiness. Meeting the psycho-social and health needs of the elderly living in nursing homes and their own homes and supporting elderly individuals with positive ageism will increase the level of happiness and support the healthy and active aging process.